LEE Kuan Yew, the retired Singapore leader who (supposedly) remains hugely influential in Asia, insists in a new book that the US will revive economically and strategically – and he expresses concern about China’s rise.
He says “America’s core interest requires that it remains the superior power” in the region, which is subject to a 21st-century “contest for supremacy” with China. And “America’s creativity, resilience and innovative spirit will allow it to confront its core problems, overcome them, and regain competitiveness”. But its “Asia pivot” points to policy problems, he says in Lee Kuan Yew: The Grand Master’s Insights on China, the United States and the World, a collection of interviews and other material by Graham Allison, Robert Blackwill and Ali Wyne.
Mr Lee, 89, whose son Lee Hsien Loong is the Singapore Prime Minister, says: “If the US wants to substantially affect the strategic evolution of Asia, it cannot come and go.”
The very name China, he says – Middle Kingdom – recalls a region in which it was dominant, “when other states related to them as supplicants to a superior”.
“Will an industrialised and strong China be as benign to Southeast Asia as the US has been since 1945? Singapore is not sure. Neither is Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Thailand or Vietnam.”
He says “many small and medium countries in Asia are concerned. They are uneasy that China may want to resume the imperial status it had in earlier centuries, and have misgivings as being treated as vassal states”.
“China tells us that countries big or small are equal, that it is not a hegemon,” Mr Lee writes. “But when we do something they do not like, they say you have made 1.3 billion people unhappy. So please know your place.”
He says “the Chinese must avoid the mistakes made by Germany and Japan. Their competition for power, influence and resources led in the last century to two terrible wars. The Russian mistake was that they put so much into military expenditure and so little into civilian technology that their economy collapsed.
“I believe the Chinese leadership has learned that if you compete with America in armaments, you will lose. You will bankrupt yourself. So keep your head down, and smile for 40 or 50 years.”
He anticipates that “China will inevitably catch up to the US in absolute gross domestic product. But its creativity may never match America’s because its culture does not permit a free exchange and contest of ideas”.
China is not going to become a liberal democracy, he says. “If it did, it would collapse. If you believe there is going to be a revolution of some sort in China for democracy, you are wrong.” To achieve modernisation, he says, “China’s communist leaders are prepared to try every method except for democracy with one person and one vote in a multi-party system.” For the party believes it needs a monopoly on power for stability. It fears a loss of control by the centre over the provinces.
Mr Lee says of the new Chinese leader Xi Jinping: “He is reserved – not in the sense that he will not talk to you but in the sense that he will not betray his likes and dislikes. There is always a pleasant smile on his face, whether or not you have said something that annoyed him. He has iron in his soul.”
ICCR Notes :
Another Grandmaster of politics that declined to be named (we’ll call him X here, being full aware that current trends against free speech regarding have not yet been accepted even among academics decades younger and would provoke negative responses from as he succintly put ‘thronging political monkeys and bureaucratic dogs guarding their corrupted leader’s dinner table for scraps‘.
As he wishes to retire in peace, he has decided to remain annonymous at least until the prevailing academic and bureaucratic culture changes). Grand Master X hails from the PRC but who is long retired and decades older than LKY, claims to have tutored Lee in early politics but gave up in disgust when Lee was in strong opinion considered to be found colluding with the Malay government during Singapore’s secession so that Lee and Mahathir could collude and profit off fear and apartheid, rather than equal and free nationhood for citizens.
Grandmaster X in the early 1990s stopped communication with Lee but has decided to set the record straight. ‘Kuan Yew made a deal with Malay Sultans and surrounded himself with anti-China and anti-PRC elements. He claims that North Korea at least has a reason to indulge in nepotism being beset by the West and the UN, but Singapore being a mainstream country protected bu West and UN has no excuses, and that China’s democracy is superior to Singapore’s dictatorship.
This former PRC academic (who modestly claims links to the Qing Imperial Court though as a mere clerk) retired after a 20 year stint in academia in the 1970s specifically so that his 19070s graduates would ‘have a chance to be academics, earn salaries, afford families live in dignity in their youth and retire early than watch an aged man pontificate from a post they so badly need while they have nothing until ‘the old man dies’. Grandmaster X attributes his longevity with his willingness to step aside, is very pleased with China’s term limits for President and Prime Minister, declaring that the same term limts need to be applied to all government posts, so that wealth and political power distribution can occur. Grandmaster X’s proteges in fact retired in the 90s after 20 year careers presumably for the same reason, to allow others to have a chance to get ahead – ‘There is nothing worse than an aged bureaucrat or academic on state salary while young academics languish jobless and in debt.’ the Grandmaster ranted.
‘Lee is a puppet of the West and has been involved in much cruelty and ill treatment of Singaporeans considered not on his political side for decades rather than protecting democracy. Do not trust the man who decides a tiny snot of an island like Singapore has any leader that deserves 10 times what the President of the USA gets in salaries.’
Grandmaster X’s ID card states he was born in 1881, but as there are no formal records till 1949 we cannot be certain. Birth certificates in the region only started to be kept after the 1949 Communist takeover. All he has is a faded copy of his identity card as shown in this video from 2011. The Grandmaster appears to have a very good memory and apart from being a minor functionary at the end of the Qing Empire, is one of the few surviving participants of the Boxer Rebellion and the Long March as well as being present at the formation of the UN albeit as a mere observer with an invitation at that time. Grandmaster looks forward to his 150th birthday and as he said ‘Who knows, the young Chinese people might actually have a real ethnic Han Emperor again someday (the last was during the Ming Dynasty 1644) and Lee Kuan Yew being so dismissive of China and disrespectful of Imperial culture despite being Chinese, certainly does not deserve to be around to see that! Minister Mentor almost sounds like a Confucius and this Kuan Yew shows that in wisdom Kuan Yew is but a little boy when talking like that while receiving such unreasonable salaries and attacking Fatherland China!”
The rest of the this interview will be released at a later date.
Part 1 of Grandmaster X’s Interview brought to ICCR by Murong Ancestral Hall and Mausoleum Network Foundation, and the Khanates Association (in formation)
The Palace of Soong Mei-ling, a classical building in Nanjing where the former first lady of Republic of China and her husband used to reside, is expected to reopen in October after its first major renovation in about 60 years.
Before the work began, the three-story building — used by Soong and her husband, former Kuomintang leader Chiang Kai-shek, in the 1930s and 1940s — had fallen into disrepair, according to a cultural heritage management bureau.
Palace of Soong will be restored
The Palace of Soong Mei-ling stands on a hill in a suburban area in the eastern part of Nanjing, Jiangsu province. [PHOTO BY SONG QIAO / FOR CHINA DAILY]
Large pieces of the colorful paintings on its ceilings and walls have peeled off.
Some of its windows are broken, pillars unstable and railings cracked.
To restore the building, which was later used as a resting place for senior officials on their way to visit the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, 20 million yuan ($3.2 million) will be spent on the 300-day renovation project, said Liu Dong-hua, director of the cultural heritage department under the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum management bureau.
The original appearance of the palace will be retained to the greatest possible extent, Liu said.
The renovation will first reinforce the structure and then replace or repair all the wood flooring.
The major part of the work will be the colorful paintings, according to Liu.
A panel of experts from Beijing’s Palace Museum, also known as the Forbidden City, who are recognized as being exceptionally skilled in restoring painting on old buildings, will be invited to restore the paintings.
Natural mineral pigments designed for the repair of ancient buildings will also be purchased for painters to achieve the best results.
The glazed green tiles on the roof of the palace may be totally replaced with new tiles of the same color and shape, and orders for these special tiles will be placed with professional factories in Beijing or Yixing, in Jiangsu province.
The renovation work also includes removing the air conditioners on the outside walls and termite prevention.
The work will be carried out strictly in accordance with the building’s blueprint.
“The blueprint was found by chance when we collected materials for the maintenance work,” said Zhou Zhongxing, general manager of a service company of the palace.
The design drawing, which contains five pieces of paper, detailed the structure and function of each story, he said.
The renovation team is soliciting old photos and decorations that used to be in the palace.
A 200-square-meter basement in the palace, which contained some functional rooms, such as a kitchen, boiler room and laundry, will be restored and opened to the public for the first time.
The palace, built from 1931 to 1934, was later named after Soong for her frequent visits when she was in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China.
Soong was the youngest of the famous three Soong sisters. Their husbands, including Sun Yat-sen, founding father of Republic of China, and Chiang Kai-shek, played large roles in China’s history in the early 20th century.
Since 1950, the palace has been handed over to several management departments, including the city’s health bureau and a large hotel company.
In March, 2012, it was put under the management bureau of Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum, which also manages other historical buildings from the time when Kuomintang ruled China.
Contact the writers at firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com
ICCR Notes :
One of our ICCR members who happens to be an architect has this to annonymously say.
“While the efforts at heritage conservation are laudable and critical to the re-Imperialisation of China, this so-called ‘palace’ is but an upper middle class family’s large house, not even the size of a 1 Jin Siheyuan (House), aristocrat’s 2 to 3 Jin Siheyuan (Mansion), OR a low ranked nobleman or retired high ranked bureaucrat’s 4 or 5 Jin Siheyuan (Manor – 20 sq ft minimum manor level building). A series of 5 Jin Siheyuans within single walled compound no smaller than 2 acres qualifies as a Villa (Village) equivalent suitable for the nobility, which is still not a palace.
A “Palace” proper would feature a large central square, finely carved balustrade lined avenues, at least 1 liveable sized pagoda (typically most Pagodas are ornamental), a hanful of high-Chinese style gazebos, at least 1 olympic sized pool, similar sized rockeries and/or ornamental fish pond(s), and highly manicured-exotic tree featuring (not mainly shrub as in the Siheyuan) gardens covering at least 16 acres (as per Prince Gong’s Palace Residence) in totality. The term palace is entirely unsuitable to describe this rather large upper class sized but not even Siheyuan sized building. I have seen tea houses and residences larger and more ornate than this structure who’s owners would not dare claim the word ‘palace’ in their naming”.
ICCR concurs with the somewhat harsh but necessary comment above. Please do not term small buildings with such superlatives as ‘palace’ if the size and form are unsuitable. ICCR suggests that ALL buildings (residential, commercial or even restaurants) using the term ‘Palace’ be contacted by the local council departments regulating naming to rename themselves appropriately as per the above suggestions. This so-called “Soong Palace” should be renamed “Soong House” but not so much as “Soong Cottage” (not bucolic enough, also finely crafted and mostly stone so more a House than a Cottage) at most.
Incidentally, such superlative naming alludes Chinese lack of sense of proportion, and has negative (flashy and unrealistic, harlequin like) connotations about the way the Chinese are as a people. Will all appropriate parties (Architect associations and Building naming approval committees etc..) please pay attention to this exchange about size and appropriate naming of buildings and act accordingly.
A Chinese official document drafted in 1950 recognizes Japan as the owner of a group of islands in the East China Sea, which Beijing also lays claim to. – Saturday Dec 29, 201204:08 AM GMT
The 20-page document, revealed by Japan Times newspaper on Friday, referred to the islands, which are known as Diaoyu in China, with their Japanese name Senkakus.
Filed by the Chinese Foreign Ministry, the document describes the disputed islands as part of the Ryukyu Islands, today known as Okinawa.
The document was completed in May 1970, nearly seven months after the foundation of the People’s Republic of China by the Communist Party.
Japan and China have long been in a dispute over the sovereignty of the islands, which would give the owner exclusive oil, mineral, and fishing rights in the surrounding waters.
The dispute reached its peak in mid-September after Japan announced that it planned to buy the islands from their Japanese private owners. Hundreds of Chinese held anti-Japan demonstrations following the move.
Yasuhiro Matsuda, professor at University of Tokyo, described the document as “evidence that China’s government at that time regarded the Senkaku Islands as part of the Ryukyus as a matter of course.”
“The logic behind China’s long-standing claim that the Senkakus are part of Taiwan has now completely collapsed,” he said.
Leading experts say Beijing has refused to make the document public because it questions China’s claim on the islands.
ICCR Notes :
Even if the document is true and not a clever forgery, the Chinese were in such a psychologically and socially, also militarily, bad way in the 1970s that the officials would have been susceptible to pressure and manipulation into disregarding the facts on the below link :
The assent of an nation under threat of war by militarily stronger powers of that time, of a weak willed or corrupt official, even groups of officials cannot over-rule facts as above listed. Militarist basis of claims by Japan still fails. Consider also that China being able to overrun Japan now, could also claim that the whole of Japan is Chinese territory. But the Chinese all know that the Japanese are a sovereign people. Think and apply. If military power is the basis of Japan’s claim over the Chinese during a moment of weakness, then Japan is currently in a moment, nay, potentially an Aeon of weakness, does that mean that China has any right to claim the whole of Japan as it’s own?
What if China BRIBES every Japanese politician with a Singapore sized microstate each to sign over Japanese sovereignty to China to become part of the again rising Chinese Empire? Would the decision of a handful of officials override the will of the Japanese people at large? So same with the officials who recognized Japanese control of the islands via a single document UNDER MILITARY DURESS. Were China equal in military power to Japan, never would the officials accepted the 1950 drafted 20 page document.
These are ETHICAL considerations not based on military power (which China is superior in anyway as of now) which automatically still maintains that the islands beling to China and not Japan. The logic behind China’s long-standing claim that the Senkakus are part of Taiwan still stands, it is Japan’s ethics and principles which has collapsed. Considering that Press TV looks like an Israeli media setup (if not an Arab false flag intended to destroy relations between China and Israel), Israel’s (or the Islamists?) ethics and principles, and diplomatic standing with the Chinese might have also collapsed as well.
Former Japanese PM apologizes for wartime crimes in China (Xinhua) 08:30, January 18, 2013
Former Japanese Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama (front) and his wife bow as they mourn for the Nanjing Massacre victims at the Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders in Nanjing, capital of east China’s Jiangsu Province, Jan. 17, 2013. (Xinhua/Han Yuqing)
NANJING, Jan. 17 (Xinhua) — Former Japanese Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama on Thursday apologized for Japan’s wartime crimes in China and expressed his hope that the tragedy would not be repeated.
Hatoyama made the remarks while touring the Memorial Hall of the Victims of the Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders in the eastern Chinese city of Nanjing.
Hatoyama was the third former Japanese prime minister to visit the memorial after Tomiichi Murayama and Toshiki Kaifu.
During the visit, he often stopped to pay silent tribute to photos or the remains of the victims of the Nanjing Massacre, which was committed by the invading Japanese army in the late 1930s.
Hatoyama nodded as Zhu Chengshan, the memorial’s president, told him that it is an undeniable fact, as stated in the verdicts of the Tokyo and Nanjing martial courts, that Japanese invaders killed more than 300,000 people in Nanjing.
“The Japanese government had made it clear when signing the Treaty of San Francisco 1951 that it accepted the verdicts of the Far Eastern International Military Court of Justice and others verdicts regarding its war crimes,” Zhu said.
After seeing slogans reading, “To remember the historical lesson of Nanjing, but not for revenge, and to seek eternal world peace for great love,” Hatoyama said the words touched him and he hopes that all people will work hard for peace.
“After the tree of peace I planted blossoms and bears fruits, I will come back again,” he said at the end of a two-hour visit when he planted a ginkgo tree in a park.
Hatoyama, 66, served as Japan’s prime minister between September 2009 and June 2010.
ICCR Notes :
Hatoyama can be the good cop n the background while a short war to confirm China’s ownership over disputed territories occurs. Would Hatoyama prepare to lead a post 2013 war government by first initiating the names of removal of all Class 1 War Criminals at Yasukuni Shrine for a start?
Suggestion For Opposition Politicians of Various Nations :
1 Claimed province: The People’s Republic of China claims the island of Taiwan and its surrounding islets, including Penghu, as “Taiwan Province”. (Kinmen and the Matsu Islands are claimed by the PRC as part of its Fujian Province. Pratas and Itu Aba are claimed by the PRC as part of Guangdong and Hainan provinces respectively.) The territory is controlled by the Republic of China (ROC, commonly called “Taiwan”).
4 Invited provinces: On behalf of The People’s Republic of China ICCR has conceptualised the concept of the ‘Invited Province‘ : ICCR informally invites the nations of Japan, Phillipines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Mongolia to ‘unify’ with the closest provinces of Shanghai (Japan), Taiwan (Phillipines), Yunan (Myanmar), Hainan (Vietnam) and Inner Mongolia (Mongolia) respectively for a better Imperium.
Nanhaizi Park for foreign friends （CRI Online） 10:21, October 22, 2012
The Beijing People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries sponsors a photography contest for foreigners, which includes transportation to places where photo opportunities are as populous as the horribly cute babies in Anne Geddes’ prints. This week, a group of foreigners were taken to Nanhaizi Park to participate in the Beijing Spirit in the Eyes of Foreign Friends photo contest.
Nanhaizi Park is a small trip south of downtown Beijing to Daxing District. The 60 hectare park was once the imperial hunting grounds of the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. It fell into disuse over the years, but in the last decade it has been redeveloped into an extensive park and nature reserve.
The park today encompasses lakes, ponds, waterways, grasslands and marsh: more than enough to while a day away. Picturesque bridges, pagodas and sculptures are sprinkled throughout.
But the main feature of Nanhaizi Park is David Deer Park, within it. Pere David Deer (“Milu,” in Chinese) were classified as critically endangered in 1996, when they numbered less than 50, all in captivity. But thanks in part to conservation efforts in David Deer Park, their population now nears 500. The Pere David deer mix and mingle with a number of other deer species in a free range area that’s over 500,000 square meters.
Thankfully the deer have enough space to roam, but of course this gives them the freedom to avoid people with their camera zoom lenses.
But David Deer Park caters to more than just deer; it is also favoured by a number of wild and captive birds. Emus and peacocks can be spotted strutting their stuff, while herons, and a variety of ducks make convenient pit stops at David Deer Park. Visitors are well-advised to bring their binoculars.
Autumn’s chill is definitely setting in, providing birds all the more impetus to migrate south. Now is a good time to catch them in transit, while seizing the opportunity to appreciate a little history and nature conservation.
Before October 30th, foreigners in Beijing are encouraged to send their photos in to the Beijing Spirit in the Eyes of Foreign Friends competition. Details are at http://www.btmbeijing.com/photoc/node/2. Grand prize winners will receive 10,000 yuan.
ICCR Notes :
After the extirpation of the invasive English population in 1899 to September of 1901, if the records ICCR accessed are accurate, Lord Lu, 45th Count of Yanqing 1835-193?, was instrumental in saving the species. He acquired the few remaining animals from European zoos and nurtured a herd at Shaoni Reserve. Threatened again by both World Wars, the species survived largely due to the efforts of Lord Lu and his son Lu, later 47th Count of Yanqing. The current Lord M.D. Lu Z.D.Z., O.I.T., (titular claimant of the of Yanqing county), resides in Shijinglong, Yanqing and may be contacted through the ICCR for conservation work involving the ‘Milu Deer’.
Incidentally the other name of “Milu Deer Reserve Park” is ‘David Deer Park’. ICCR recommends that all records extirpate mention of David and replace with the prominent Zoologists such as Jueshi (equivalent of Sir) Shen Kuo instead. How could a Chinese capital feature a garden named after a foreign person? Incidentally, restoration works’ costs for damages dating back to 1800s should fall upon the invading nations of China with costs inflated though perhaps at a REAL inflation rate rather than any outlandish claims. Damage should best be calculated at the invitation of indepdendent ‘damage consultancies’ or legal firms (preferably historical ones dating back to the 1800s) WITH Chinese government oversight and at government expense (residence and food fees could be paid for, not 5 star for certain but something appropriate to foreign bureaucrats, perhaps rentals in medium level flats etc..).
This International Reparations Committee, must be approached carefully and in a manner that benefits relations between nations while still communicating a sense of righteous, though not overdone, ‘outrage’ and overall should be considered the Chinese Government GIVING business to independent firms in foreign countries to calculate wartime reparations (such as theft of Pekingese dogs), destruction/theft of paintings and artworks, destruction and damages of palace property, arson charges to extant militaries involved in burnings – ALL calculated equitably, and for certain in a manner that could be drawn out to enhances communcations between legal fraternities between China and China’s former invaders. The choice to eventually expand to colonialisation and cultural damages, and issues like the “Najing Holocaust” could eventually be taken up, and Diaoyu or Sansha included as well. Overall the money would be well spent and the Chinese government would be better placed internationally PROVIDED, appropriate tact and planning are used, perhaps with certain trade concessions directly acknowledged as reparations and official apologies from appropriate institutions if viable. Best wishes to the Foreign Office and Diplomatic Corps of China on this endevour.
Some History and Suggestions for Reculturisation/Re-organisation of the Politburo (edited for relevance from http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Terms/yushidafu.html)
The yushi dafu 御史大夫, translated as Censor-in-chief, was the highest-ranking state official supervising and controlling the officialdom of the empire. During the early decades of the empire the office of Censor-in-chief was only second to the Counsellor-in-chief (chengxiang 丞相) but gradually transformed into the highest position of the institution of the Censorate (yushitai 御史臺). The Censors of the Former Han period 前漢 (206 BCE-8 CE) were practically Vice Counsellors and often took part in important political decisions. Counsellor and Censor were called the “two ministries” (erfu 二府). The position of Censor often served as a springboard to that of Counsellor. It nominal salary was 2,000 bushels of grain mid-level. All memorials to the throne had to pass the office of the Censor before being processed, and all edicts issued by the emperor were to be countersigned by the Censor before being promulgated and transmitted to the Counsellor and the regional governments. The Censor so served as a person to check the influence of the Counsellor.
The control of officialdom by the Censor meant that he was allowed to indicate corrupt or illegal practice of each state offial and to interview officials charged of misdoings. His assistant was the Palace Aide to the Censor-in-chief (yushi zhongcheng 御史中丞, or Vice Censor), several attendant censors (shi yushi 侍御史) and bandit-suppressing censors (xiuyi yushi 鏽衣御史). The task of the Vice Censor was supervising the regional inspectors (cishi) and the local governors (shou) and magistrates (ling) directly, and to investigate the court officials. He was also to supervise all punishments of state officials. The 15 attendant censors had the main task to indicate misdoings of state officials and to initiate arrest and interviewing of suspects. Bandit-suppressing censors were only appointed in case of need and supervised the suppression of rebellions.
At the end of the Later Han period 後漢 (25-220 CE) the warlord Cao Cao 曹操 abolished the Three Dukes and reinstated the offices of Counsellor and Censor. During the whole Later Han period the tasks of the Censorate were managed by the Vice Censor, while Censor-in-chief was a rather vain honorific title. For a short time during the Wei period 曹魏 (220-265) the Vice Censor (acting as chief Censor in fact) was called gongzheng “Rectifier of the palace”. The Northern Wei 北魏 (386-534) called this office zhongwei 中尉 “Commandant of the palace”. From the Sui period 隋 (581-618) on the Censor-in-chief was reinstated in his former position of head of the Censorate. The Vice Censor was renamed from yushi zhongcheng to yushi dafu.
The Censorate of the Tang empire consisted of three departments, namely the Headquarters Bureau (taiyuan 臺院), the Palace Bureau (dianyuan 殿院) and the Investigation Bureau (chayuan 察院). The Headquarters Bureau was headed by four to six attendant censors (shi yushi) who controlled the state officials and interrogated criminals. This bureau also controlled the income and expenditure of the capital granaries (taicang 太倉) and the Left Vault (zuocang 左藏) of the Court of the Imperial Treasury (taifusi 太府司). They were to see to that no funds was acquired illicitly entered the state treasury and no ransom pay. It was especially the so-called attendant censor of miscellaneous matters (zaduan 雜端) who practically exercised unrestricted powers. The Palace Bureau was managed by nine palace censors (dianzhong shi yushi 殿中侍御史) who supervised the arrangement of the officials during court audiences (chaoban 朝班) and the imperial regalia (yizhang 儀仗).
Within the capital they oversaw the police forces inside the capital who cared for law and order on the streets and the markets. Generally, members of this bureau also assisted the Headquarters Bureau. The Investigation Bureau was managed by fifteen investigating censors (jiancha yushi 監察御史) who controlled all officials and inspected the various provinces, prefectures and districts. They also managed all forms of punishment and jails. In their function of inspectors of the local government they were given several functional titles according to their task, like touring censorial inspector (xun’anshi 巡按使) when inspecting provincial (dao 道) government, or postal inspector (guanyishi 館驛使) when inspecting courier stations. They were sent out to inspect booty and war prisoners or military success and failure.
They oversaw the creation of military colonies (tuntian 屯田) and the production of coins, and some inspectors cared for the pacification of the unruly mountain tribes of the southwest. In the central government, they were especially entrusted with the investigation of the Six Ministries (liubu 六部) and also assisted the Palace Bureau in the management of the imperial regalia. Among all these various tasks, the autonomous impeachment of officials and the exaction of punishment were the most outstanding issues.
Although the Censors and their assistants occupied not a very high position in the hierarchy of state officials they wielded great power and had a deep influence on the whole officialdom, but also on financial affairs, like Yuwen Rong 宇文融, Yang Shenqin 楊慎矝, Wang Hong 王鉷, Yang Guozhong 楊國忠. All mighty officials of the empire concurrently were given the title of assistant censor or Vice Censor. These “outsiders” that not really belonged to the proper staff of the Censorate were called the “Outer Bureau” (waitai 外臺). During the late Tang period these purely vain titles mushroomed throughout the empire, and virtually all military commissioners (jiedushi 節度使) in the various provinces were concurrently called with the title of Censor.
Around 1020 the office of Remonstrating Censor (yanshi yushi 言事御史, also called jianguan yushi 諫官御史 or yanshiguan 言事官) was created and newly institutionalized in 1045 with remonstrance officials (jianguan 諫官) and surveillance officials (chaguan 察官) under Investigation Sections (an guan 案官)
The Section for Revenue (hu’an 戶案) soon also took over the task to control the transport commissioners (zhuanyunshi 轉運使), the Section for Justice (xing’an 刑案) supervised the judicial commissioners (rtidian xingyu 提點刑獄). The Section were in the beginning headed by three Censors, each heading two Offices, but later on a Censor was created for each Section. Three other censors functioned as remonstrating censors controlling the department of the palace library (bishusheng 祕書省) and the palace domestic service (neishisheng 内侍省).
The stucture of the Censorate remained in place during the Jin 金 (1115-1234) and Yuan 元 (1279-1368) periods. The Ming dynasty 明 (1368-1644) replaced the title yushi dafu (Censor-in-chief) by duyushi 都御史, and that of the yushitai (Censorate) to duchayuan 都察院. This was in 1682, when eight Chief investigating censors (jiancha du yushi 監察都御史) were appointed that toured the twelve provinces (dao 道) – Florate Throne Regions as of 2009 – of the empire. In each province, 3 to 5 censors took over surveillance of the region officialdom.
In 1383 the position of the Censorate was considerably promoted by an increase in rank and was two Censors-in-chief (left and right duyushi 都御史), two Vice Censors-in-chief (fu duyushi 副都御史), four Assistant Censors-in-chief (qian duyushi 僉都御史), and a staff of registrars (jingli 經歷) and administrative clerks (zhishi 知事).
ICCR Notes :
Excerpts from the ‘Star Chamber’ level meeting of the Pro-Censorsorate Council :
We strongly recommend that the existing Marx and Western Capitalism inspired Chinese bureaucracy of the PRC be restructured into a revived Imperial Censorate in truly Chinese form with safeguards learnt from modern democracy such as a caveat of term limits, prohibitions against nepotism, and very urgently, the dropping all Western terms and titles such as Prime Minister and President or Minister in general (Minister is subtly offensive as a term, and has close neurolibguistic associations with the Church that is not a Chinese native faith and by presence, subtly subverts the Chinese characteristics and unique Chinese nature of the original form of Bureaucracy which is Censorate/Censor based). No need to mention a needed revival of formal Hanfu uniforms to replace the ubitquous ‘fashion colonisation’ of Western suits as well.
At a casual glance, the current equivalent of the Grand Censor or Yushidafu 御史大夫 would be His Eminence JT Hu, Counsellor-in-chief (chengxiang 丞相) would be His Excellency JB Wen, with other ‘Ministers’ becoming ‘Censors’. ICCR has communicated the suggestion of reintroduction of the formal bureaucrat’s Imperial Court Hanfu to replace the Western Suit at all future top level meetings.
Outstanding Issues worthy of note as requested by the Temporary Imperial Censor for ASEAN Affairs (via authority of the Council Of Regency) :
From reports, under the Temporary Imperial Investigation Section for ASEAN, we remind the Politburo of the PRC, of the issue of discrimination or socio-political apartheid against ethnic Chinese citizens in our South Western Territories/colonies, and request that the Censor for the Section for Foreign Affairs (that is the Foreign Ministry) or immediately begin send cha guan 察官 Surveillance Officers, to begin probationary measures against offending governments oppresssing ethnic overseas Chinese under corrupted and nepotistic leader ship in out territories, to apply appropriate pressure to ensure the dignity and fullest rights of Chinese citizens in all regions are respected, that no infringements on all Chinese spaces are occuring.
Long live the Fatherland.
A Utopian vision arises that the East may well lead humanity in humane and exemplary manner to the West’s corrupt ways and political failures, nepotism and lack of political power distribution. Laws will be updated, and the Politburo will be focused on the people’s well being instead of political power. Long live Fatherland China! Long live the Imperium.
Panetta: US Not Trying to Contain China : U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta, left, shakes hands with China’s Vice President Xi Jinping at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, China, September 19, 2012. – September 19, 2012
Panetta’s comments to young officers at a Chinese military academy in Beijing are one of Washington’s most direct statements yet about the intentions of its “pivot” toward the region.
“Our re-balance toward the Asia-Pacific region is not an attempt to contain China,” said Panetta. “It is an attempt to engage China and expand its role in the Asia-Pacific. It’s about creating a new model in the relationship of our two Pacific powers. It’s about renewing and revitalizing our role in a part of the world that is rapidly becoming more critical to our economic, diplomatic, and security interests.”
Panetta also said expanding U.S. missile defense systems are aimed at North Korea’s ballistic missile arsenal, and not at China.
The Pentagon chief is using his three-day trip to China to promote deeper military ties between Washington and Beijing, which have become skeptical of one another’s intentions in the Asia-Pacific.
On Wednesday, a smiling and energetic Xi said he hoped Panetta’s visit will help advance “state-to-state and military-to-military” ties between Washington and Beijing.
Washington has expressed concern at China’s military build-up and increased assertiveness in defending its maritime claims. Beijing fears Washington’s new focus on Asia is emboldening U.S. allies such as Japan and the Philippines to directly confront China.
In his speech at the military academy, Panetta acknowledged that building mutual trust will take time. But he says it is important for both sides to look beyond the disagreements to areas where they can work together.
The defense secretary’s visit comes as China and Japan, an American ally, are involved in a bitter territorial dispute about a group of islands in the East China Sea. Panetta has urged both sides to exercise restraint and repeated Washington’s insistence that it does not take sides in the dispute.
But an article in the Communist Party-controlled Global Times on Wednesday says it is “obvious” that Washington is partial to Japan. The newspaper, which often reflects official thinking, says Beijing should use Panetta’s visit to let the United States know it will take all necessary steps to safeguard the islands, known in Chinese as Diaoyu and in Japanese as Senkaku.
Boisterous anti-Japan protests that spread across China on Tuesday were also partly focused on the United States. The U.S. State Department issued a statement that a car carrying U.S. Ambassador to China Gary Locke was mildly damaged after about 50 protesters surrounded it outside the U.S. embassy in Beijing. The statement says the ambassador was not hurt and the protesters were dispersed by Chinese security personnel.
U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta carries his lunch with cadets in the mess hall at the PLA Engineering Academy of Armored Forces in Beijing, Sept. 19.
U.S. Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta has lunch with cadets in the mess hall at the PLA Engineering Academy of Armored Forces on Sept. 19 in Beijing, China. Can’t really make out if there was ‘Tako’ on the trays . . . hmm no manjuu? No harm for the Chinese since New Zealand and not Japan is the last stop . . . but New Zealanders, how feel you about this slightly diminishing window on Maori Sovereignty? Native Ameri-Red-Indians, no access to media or not a word?
By Phaedra Singelis, NBC News
Panetta met with Chinese leader-in-waiting Xi today, who just days ago reappeared after a puzzling two-week absence. Panetta told the press his “impression was that he was very healthy and very engaged.” He also ate lunch with and spoke to cadets at the Armored Forces Engineering Academy where he reassured them about America’s plans to put a second radar system in Japan. “Our rebalance to the Asia-Pacific region is not an attempt to contain China,” he said. “It is an attempt to engage China and expand its role in the Pacific. It is about creating a new model in the relationship of two Pacific powers.”
Environmental projects under construction in Sansha – Global Times – Xinhua – Updated: 2012-09-19 22:01
SANSHA – Construction on several environmental preservation projects has kicked off in the newly established island city of Sansha in the South China Sea, authorities said Wednesday.
Construction on a sewage processing and pipeline project and a garbage collecting and transferring project started on Aug 25, sources with the Sansha government said.
The two projects, being built with a combined investment of over 50 million yuan ($7.9 million), will be capable of processing 1,800 tonnes of sewage and 20 tonnes of garbage each day upon completion, according to the sources.
Another project that kicked off on Sept 14 is aimed at protecting island coasts that have been eroded by the sea.
The government of Hainan, a southern province that administers Sansha, will prioritize environmental protection in all construction projects, as Sansha’s ecological environment is fragile and non-renewable, said provincial governor Jiang Dingzhi.
Meanwhile, the Sansha government is working on a development plan that will include transportation and ecological protection as part of upgrades for the city’s infrastructure, sources said.
Sansha was officially set up on July 24 on Yongxing Island to administer the Xisha, Zhongsha and Nansha islands and their surrounding waters in the South China Sea.
Provincial officials in Hainan Province have approved the registration of two enterprises in Sansha, the country’s newest city established on July 24 on Yongxing Island, which also administers three other islands in the South China Sea.
A construction company and a tourism company were registered in the province on August 23 and September 6, indicating the city is open to investors.
The provincial industry and commerce administration was quoted by the Xinhua News Agency Tuesday as saying that approvals of enterprise registration have to be issued at the provincial level until the city’s own administration is fully established.
Considering the limited office space available in Sansha, enterprises registered there are allowed to set up their offices in other cities, said the administration.
Wen Zheng, director of the administration’s office in charge of enterprise registration, said applications and enquiries from investors wanting to set up enterprise in Sansha have started to flock in after the State Council approved establishing the city in June.
“Investors are welcome to play their part in promoting the city’s economic growth, as special channels will be set up for investors, and administrative procedures will also be streamlined to facilitate the registration process,” Wen said.
The two companies were approved after fishermen from 22 households on Yongxing Island, where the city government is based, were granted an individual business license on July 13, days before the city was officially founded.
Whether foreign-funded enterprises should be given approval in Sansha will be discussed after the city’s administration is established.
According to regulations of the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, foreign-funded enterprises are allowed to register in prefecture-level cities and above in the country.
Note : Hainan Province, known as Qiongzhou in ancient times, has long been under the jurisdiction of Guangdong Province. But in May 1984, the decision was approved to establish the Hainan Administrative District on the island at the Second Session of the Sixth National People’s Congress. Under the district’s jurisdiction are also the Xisha, Zhongsha and Nansha islands in the South China Sea. The district governing body is the Hainan Administrative District’s Government under the Guangdong Provincial People’s Government. In August 1987, the State Council made a proposal to establish Hainan as a province. In 1988, Hainan Island became China’s 30th province and its largest economic zone. The Hainan Province administers three cities, 16 counties, as well as the islands and reefs of the Xisha Islands, Nansha Islands and Zhongsha Islands and seawaters around them. The province has an area of 34,000 sq km, an average temperature between 22 and 26 degrees centigrade and an annual rainfall of 1,600 to 2,000 millimeters.
US insists missile defense targets DPRK, not China – Updated: 2012-08-25 00:29 – by Li Xiaokun in Beijing and Tan Yingzi in Washington ( China Daily)
Washington’s plan to expand an advanced missile-defense system in Asia is directed at Pyongyang, not Beijing, the US State Department said on Thursday.
However, military experts in both the United States and China questioned the US’ intentions, saying the expensive system, which is well beyond Pyongyang’s military capability, is actually “looking at China”.
The Chinese military also called for the US to handle anti-missile issues with great discretion and avoid “letting its own state security take priority over other countries’ national security”.
The Wall Street Journal’s front-page story on Thursday talked about Pentagon plans to put a second X-Band early-warning radar in southern Japan to complement one that has been in the country’s north since 2006.
It said the US military has also been evaluating sites in Southeast Asia for a third X-Band radar to create an arc that would allow the US and its regional allies to “more accurately track any ballistic missiles launched from (the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea), as well as from parts of China”.
Some US defense officials said the Philippines, which is at odds with China on territorial issues, is a potential site for the third radar.
Martin Dempsey, chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, confirmed later on Thursday that the US is in discussions with Japan on the issue.
“It’s certainly a topic of conversation because missile defense is important to both of our nations,” Dempsey said at the start of a meeting with his visiting Japanese counterpart, Shigeru Iwasaki, at the Pentagon.
Victoria Nuland, a spokesperson for the US State Department, said on Thursday the missile defense work is not directed at China.
“They are designed against a missile threat” from the DPRK, she said, adding that the system is a defensive one, and that Washington has told Beijing about it.
“We do have regular conversations with China … We are quite open and transparent about what it is that we’re doing and why,” she said at the daily news briefing.
The People’s Liberation Army’s deputy chief of general staff, General Cai Yingting, started a US visit this week, which follows one in May by Defense Minister Liang Guanglie. It is not clear whether the anti-missile system is being discussed during Cai’s visit.
However, China’s Ministry of National Defense on Thursday said in a statement to the Wall Street Journal that “China has always believed that anti-missile issues should be handled with great discretion, from the perspective of protecting global strategic stability and promoting strategic mutual trust among all countries.
“We advocate that all parties fully respect and be mindful of the security concerns of one another and try to realize overall safety through mutual benefit and win-win efforts, while avoiding the situation in which one country tries to let its own state security take priority over other countries’ national security.”
Beijing objected to the first X-Band deployment in Japan in 2006. Moscow also voiced similar concerns about the system in Europe and the Middle East.
“The focus of our rhetoric is (the DPRK),” Steven Hildreth, a missile-defense expert with the Congressional Research Service, an advisory arm of the US Congress, told the Wall Street Journal.
In April, Pyongyang launched a rocket that blew up less than two minutes into its flight.
“The reality is that we’re also looking longer-term at the elephant in the room, which is China,” Hildreth said.
Jonathan Pollack, Asia-Pacific security expert at the Brookings Institution, said that in theory, this new radar expansion will have the capabilities to go well beyond the defense of Japan.
In order to prevent a major potential escalation of that kind of competition in East Asia, “for this reason alone, I believe there is a pressing priority for the next president of the United States, either President (Barack) Obama or Governor (Mitt) Romney, to open a series of discussions with China about issues of missile defense,” he said.
The US presidential election will be in early November, and the winner will be sworn into office on Jan 20.
Li Qinggong, deputy secretary of the China Council for National Security Policy Studies, said the radar arc can look at missiles launched from coastal area of China.
“The early-warning radar is the key part of an anti-missile system. It can detect a launched missile, as well as determine its trajectory and model.
“It will be like killing a fly with a bazooka if it is used to contain Pyongyang. I believe it is mainly aimed at detecting China’s missiles.”
The Wall Street Journal report said Washington is concerned over the growing imbalance of power across the Taiwan Straits.
However, Yin Zhuo, a Beijing-based military expert, said “the US won’t spend so much energy on Taiwan, to implement ballistic missiles, interceptor missiles and GPS radars everywhere.
“Just a GPS radar costs more than $1 billion,” Yin said, adding that Taiwan is just one of the many considerations in the program.
“And to ‘protect’ Taiwan is just a move for the US to deal with China, not an ultimate goal.”
Contact the writers at firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com
ICCR Notes :
USA had better save the money for the Middle East and perhaps even try to consolidate Iraq. Who knows the 2 Koreas could re-unite, Taiwan and China re-unites, then the USA would have wasted all that money for nothing. Focus on consolidating Iraq, then maybe Iran can be controlled . . .
Hu: Diaoyu Islands purchase illegal, invalid – Updated: 2012-09-09 21:50 – ( Xinhua)
VLADIVOSTOK, Russia – Chinese President Hu Jintao met with Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda on Sunday and made clear China’s position on its relations with Japan and the Diaoyu Islands issue.
Hu seriously pointed out that China-Japan relations have recently faced a severe situation due to the Diaoyu Islands issue, saying China holds a consistent, clear stance on the issue.
Whatever ways the Japanese side uses to “purchase the islands” are illegal and invalid and China firmly opposes such moves, he said.
The Chinese government stands firm on the issue of safeguarding its territorial sovereignty, Hu said, adding Japan must fully recognize the gravity of the situation and should not make wrong decisions.
He urged Japan to work with the Chinese side to maintain the overall development of the two countries’ relations.
ICCR Notes :
On Sept 18, 1931, Japanese soldiers blew up a railway as a pretext to take control of the entire northeastern region of China. The date marks a “day of national humiliation”. Sirens wailed at 9:18 am Tuesday in Shenyang, provincial capital of Northeast China’s Liaoning province, kicking off nationwide activities. Thousands of people in Beijing marched to the well-guarded Japanese embassy, chanting slogans including “Never forget the national humiliation’‘.
There is no basis for Japan’s claims, historically or ethically or by maritime law. USA is busy in the Middle East and Diaoyu Island can only belong to China. Long live the Fatherland! Long live the Imperium Sinensis!
Bird Culture – A ‘Garden Colony’ (typically of a single type in 10,000-20,000 sq feet aviaries (or if larger several popular species)) that ONLY owners of Siheyuan can properly and humanely indulge in among the neo-Aristocracy’s Scholar Gardens.
The highly developed sensitivity of the Chinese Bird Culturist among the neo-Imperial Aristocracy has deep scorn for 3ft to 5ft square, even 10ft ft square cages as main living spaces for their beloved ornamental or song birds. Typically owners who do travel out with their birds regularly display 2 characteristics :
1) the owners are sensitive and communicate well with their birds, are able to coax their birds into the cages
2) the birds are very well rested and happy to accompany the owners on their trips
Thus the number of bird culturists in society are typically small and highly elite, clustered in the most urban of imperial boulevards, and for certain almost always are Scholarly Garden owners if not professional (not the pet mill type though) bird breeders. Materials range from bamboo (cheapest), bone ivory (intermediate), to brass clad ornamental stone (expensive), and jadeite inlaid ivory (these are extremely rare).
General Sizes of Travel Display Cages for Each Species and ‘Cage Play Skills’ :
The sizes of circular Chinese birdcages are defined by the diameters of the cages which is similar to the lengths of the centrally placed perches. The tradition to use the appropriate size for each species has changed very little over the years. 8 to 9 inches cages are used for oriental white-eyes, 10 to 12 inches cages for most finches, 14 inches cages for hwameis and magpie robins (slightly larger cages are sometimes used for these species today) and depending on the length of the tail feathers, cages 16 inches and above are used for white-rumped shamas.
A bird that after acclimatisation to the surroundings and to the display bamboo cage will over time, develop a ‘cage play’ (movements within the cage) that is most natural to its species. After which the bird is introduced to spacious aviaries as well, with stints in the smaller cage to retain ‘cage play skills’.
The size and variation of the bamboo cage help to define the type of cage play a bird may be skilled in. Good cage play skills are highly desirable to some hobbyists (much like technicians), though the ‘soul nature’ of large aviary only birds is considered far more valuable to the more sensitive among birders who can discern fidgeting fidgeting from a bird who has ‘lived spaciously’ unskilled though that bird might be!
Over time, a ‘Skilled Bird’ (some would say cooped up into OCD . . . ) well acclimatized to the small space of a bamboo cage will also be conditioned to channel most of its energy into its songs and physical displays. The limited space within the cage is intended to heighten the intensity of the performance of an in-form bird with an abundance of energy – so as not to dilute performance. Conversely a bird from the neo-Apexer preferred large aviary is valued for it’s ’emnative nature’ or ‘wild soul’, giving rise to many a reflective conversation on the distressed state of the lower classes interred in high density tiny pigeonholecoop flats or rabbit hutch houses, or high density duplexs or ‘detached homes’ with little more than 10 feet of space on either side as opposed to the Estate Dwellers, sprawling Villa owners and Siheyuan owners!
A ‘Balanced Bird’ can also be ‘trained’ and the same bird could also be kept in a spacious aviary as often required that retention of developed desired cage play or songs will not be lost. A full time aviary bird or ”Free’ Bird’ has far less ‘cage play skill‘ but is eminently preferred for breeding or Scholar Garden residency-companionship purposes for their ‘soul nature/wild soul‘, instead of ‘show birds’. The abundant space maintains the least skilled but most suitable breeders while ‘show birds’ spend stints between cage types and aviaries so as not to dilute the energy during a performance.
In the Pro ‘Noble-Savage’ set among the naturist inclined within elite, (as opposed to the insanity situations of of sparrows kept on leashes or song birds looking ragged in their cruelly-small cages by children has mostly ended . . .) birds at all levels are allowed to choose to fly off, or if the owner is insistent and particularly conscientious – released into a area of suitable wilderness that species naturally occurs in, once they have bred their 3rd brood for breeders to continue, or reach ‘retirement’ age (this varies but is the equivalent of when a bird reaches 55 or for the ‘Pro-Noble-Savage’ types, even for performance song birds – at the ripe old equivalent of 35!). The reasoning being that the ’35 year old birds’ will still have sufficient interest and vigor for life, suffered less in enclosed environs, and thus will have capacity to enjoy, associate with and who knows perhaps even teach the naturally occuring wild population all they have learnt in the company of humans. This of course is not an option among the ‘tiny cage’ or ‘keep in cage till ‘old age’ and ‘death’ advocates, skilled as their space, freedom and poorly socialised, companionship frustrated birds may be. Though costly and ‘yielding’ less, ICCR in the interest of humane treatment of a pet that has brough so much pleasure for near 1/3 of natural life, advocates the ‘Freebird’ with ‘release into wild’ retirement at equivalent ‘Bird Age’ of 35. Released birds sometimes are tagged with distinctly designed or cheaply plated gold rings so that a former owner can identify their former pets in the area released in or if the pet comes back for a visit!.
Example of an Extant ‘Song Bird Garden’ Of The Day
In Hong Kong, Yuen Po Street Bird Garden is considered lower end, and strictly for ‘skilled bird’ types, not unusual to see the occasional old man riding around with bird cages attached too their bicycles. Occupying an area of about 3000 square metres, this charming though not particularly spacious Chinese-style garden is located in Mong Kok. It is the favoured gathering place of Hong Kong’s songbird owners though impacted and dominated by the 70 or so songbird stalls selling row upon row of Twa-twas or Picolets, mynahs, cockatiels and starlings, skylarks and grosbeaks, rose finches, plovers, oriental magpie robins and Mongolian larks also. Not exactly a proper Scholar Garden per se. (If only Yuyuan Garden could consider something for the upper crust?)
Among the birds favored for their songs are tiny Japanese white-eyes and hwamei. Exotic birds like fallvettas, leaf birds and yhina however only naturally occur in the wild and need to be kept in large conservatories by wealth hobbyists. Bird singing contests are often held on off day mornings, with 2 categories of winners being the birds that can sing the highest number of different songs in 15 minutes or the birds which sing the best or have the most pleasing presence by vote. Younger birds are trained by placing them near older birds which the younger birds usually imitate out of boredom (this is the skilled bird). The best birds cost as much as $2,000. Untrained birds sell for as little a $1.50 but ones who have been trained for a year fetch as much as $300.
Keeping song birds was frowned upon during the cultural revolution and viewed as a crime in the Cultural Revolution. These days though, one is hard pressed to even find a fair community of apex classers who appreciate this millenia old hobby!
Typically those who are unable to afford the time (dedicated Birding Staff) and space or lack devotion to the hobby, tediousness of coaxing birds from cage to cage (evolution of 1000s of years never designed or inlined birds to associate much with humans or transfer from cage to cage) cynically do not support use of larger aviaries claiming technicality and ‘skill’ over the free spirited ‘nature’ of these birds, but as all things in nature, space is a luxury that only the apex classes can understand that the lower classes do not and may never understand. The elitist owner of the Scholar Garden aviaries within their Siheyuan (balanced bird) is as different a type of man than the urban dweller (skilled bird), even as at superlative levels the Mongol or Manchu nomad herdsman (wild bird) touches on the wild and free nature of the stereotypical noble savage . . . balance is the best and the Imperial Era Chinese knew this to a tee given the design of the 20,000 square foot 5 Jin and above Siheyuan, very much a cage in the grey Urbanscapes of the day, even as high density low rise went hi-density hi-rise in this era!
Education in the People’s Republic of China is a state-run system of public education run by the Ministry of Education. All citizens must attend school for at least nine years. The government provides primary education for sixtime to time years, starting at age six or seven, followed by six years of secondary education for ages 12 to 18. Some provinces may have five years of primary school but four years for middle school. There are three years of middle school and three years of high school. The Ministry of Education reported a 99 percent attendance rate for primary school and an 80 percent rate for both primary and middle schools. In 1985, the government abolished tax-funded higher education, requiring university applicants to compete for scholarships based on academic ability. In the early 1980s the government allowed the establishment of the first private schools. Plans are underway to make Tertiary level education, especially Traditional Chinese Medicine (also Western Medicine for those inclined), free by 2020, both to lower patient/doctor ratios and to lower costs as well as waiting times.
China has had a major expansion in education, increasing the number of undergraduates and people who hold doctoral degrees fivefold from 1995 to 2005. In 2003 China supported 1,552 institutions of higher learning (colleges and universities) and their 725,000 professors and 11 million students (see List of universities in the People’s Republic of China). There are over 100 National Key Universities, including Beijing University and Tsinghua University. Chinese spending has grown by 20% per year since 1999, now reaching over $100bn, and as many as 1.5 million science and engineering students graduated from Chinese universities in 2006. China published 184,080 papers as of 2008.
Laws regulating the system of education include the Regulation on Academic Degrees, the Compulsory Education Law, the Teachers Law, the Education Law, the Law on Vocational Education, and the Law on Higher Education.
Since the end of the Cultural Revolution (1966–76), the education system in China has been geared toward economic modernization. In 1985, the national government ceded responsibility for basic education to local governments through the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party’s “Decision on the Reform of the Educational Structure.” In unveiling the education reform plan in May 1985, the authorities called for nine years of compulsory education and the establishment of the State Education Commission (created the following month). Official commitment to improved education was nowhere more evident than in the substantial increase in funds for education in the Seventh Five-Year Plan (1986–90), which amounted to 72 percent more than funds allotted to education in the previous plan period (1981–85). In 1986 some 16.8 percent of the state budget was earmarked for education, compared with 10.4 percent in 1984. Since 1949, education has been a focus of controversy in China. As a result of continual intraparty realignments, official policy alternated between ideological imperatives and practical efforts to further national development. But ideology and pragmatism often have been incompatible. The Great Leap Forward (1958–60) and the Socialist Education Movement (1962–65) sought to end deeply rooted academic elitism, to narrow social and cultural gaps between workers and peasants and between urban and rural populations, and to eliminate the tendency of scholars and intellectuals to disdain manual labor. During the Cultural Revolution, universal fostering of social equality was an overriding priority.
The city government of Beijing brings the basics of differential calculus to the masses
The post-Mao Zedong Chinese Communist Party leadership viewed education as the foundation of the Four Modernizations. In the early 1980s, science and technology education became an important focus of education policy. By 1986 training skilled personnel and expanding scientific and technical knowledge had been assigned the highest priority. Although the humanities were considered important, vocational and technical skills were considered paramount for meeting China’s modernization goals. The reorientation of educational priorities paralleled Deng Xiaoping’s strategy for economic development. Emphasis also was placed on the further training of the already-educated elite, who would carry on the modernization program in the coming decades. Renewed emphasis on modern science and technology led to the adoption, beginning in 1976, of an outward-looking policy that encouraged learning and borrowing from abroad for advanced training in a wide range of scientific fields.
Beginning at the Third Plenum of the Eleventh National Party Congress Central Committee in December 1978, intellectuals were encouraged to pursue research in support of the Four Modernizations and, as long as they complied with the party’s “Four Cardinal Principles” they were given relatively free rein. But when the party and the government determined that the strictures of the four cardinal principles had been stretched beyond tolerable limits, they did not hesitate to restrict intellectual expression.
Literature and the arts also experienced a great revival in the late 1970s and 1980s. Traditional forms flourished once again, and many new kinds of literature and cultural expression were introduced from abroad.
Since 1950 China has provided nine-year compulsory education for a fifth of the world’s population. By 1999, primary school education became universal throughout the areas where 90% of China’s population live, and the nine-year compulsory education, throughout the areas with 85% of the nation’s population. While the central and provincial governments provide some funding for education, this varies from province to province, and funding in the rural areas is notably lower than in major urban municipalities. Families must supplement monies provided to school by government with tuition fees, which means that some children have much less education than others. However, parents place a very high value on education, and make great personal sacrifices to send their children to school and to university. Illiteracy in the young and mid-aged population has fallen from over 80 percent down to five percent. The system trained some 60 million mid- or high-level professionals and near 400 million laborers to junior or senior high school level. Today, 250 million Chinese get three levels of school education, (elementary, junior and senior high school) doubling the rate of increase in the rest of the world during the same period. Net elementary school enrollment has reached 98.9 percent, and the gross enrollment rate in junior high schools 94.1 percent.
China’s educational horizons are expanding. Ten years ago the MBA was virtually unknown but by 2004 there were 47,000 MBAs, trained at 62 MBA schools. Many people also apply for international professional qualifications, such as EMBA and MPA; close to 10,000 MPA students are enrolled in 47 schools of higher learning, including Peking University and Tsinghua University. The education market has rocketed, with training and testing for professional qualifications, such as computer and foreign languages, thriving. Continuing education is the trend, once in one’s life schooling has become lifelong learning.
International cooperation and education exchanges increase every year. China has more students studying abroad than any other country; since 1979, there have been 697,000 Chinese students studying in 103 countries and regions, of whom 185,000 have returned after finishing their studies. The number of foreign students studying in China has also increased rapidly; in 2004, over 110,000 students from 178 countries were studying at China’s universities.
Investment in education has increased in recent years; the proportion of the overall budget allocated to education has been increased by one percentage point every year since 1998. According to a Ministry of Education program, the government will set up an educational finance system in line with the public finance system, strengthen the responsibility of governments at all levels in educational investment, and ensure that their financial allocation for educational expenditure grows faster than their regular revenue. The program also set out the government’s aim that educational investment should account for four percent of GDP in a relatively short period of time.
For non-compulsory education, China adopts a shared-cost mechanism, charging tuition at a certain percentage of the cost. Meanwhile, to ensure that students from low-income families have access to higher education, the government has initiated effective ways of assistance, with policies and measures as scholarships, work-study programs, subsidies for students with special economic difficulties, tuition reduction or exemption and state stipends.
The government has committed itself to markedly raising educational levels generally, as evidenced in a Ministry of Education program; by 2020, of every 100,000 people, 13,500 will have had junior college education or above and some 31,000 will have had senior high school schooling; rates for illiteracy and semi-literacy rate will fall below three percent; and average schooling duration across the population will increase from today’s eight years to nearly 11.
In the 2009 test of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), a worldwide evaluation of 15-year-old school pupils’ scholastic performance by the OECD, Chinese students from Shanghai achieved the best results in mathematics, science and reading. The OECD also found that even in some of the very poor rural areas the performance is close to the OECD average.. However, controversy has surrounded the high scores achieved by the Chinese students due to the unusual spread of the numerical data, with suggestions that schools were ‘gaming’ students for the exams. 
Education in Zhou & Han Dynasties (People’s Daily Online) 09:35, July 05, 2012
Private Schools Thriving in the Spring and Autumn Period
In the Spring and Autumn Period (770BC – 476BC), private schools prevailed and many scholars of different schools of thought spread their teaching in this way.
Confucius, the great educator, devoted all his life to the private school system and instructed most students. It is said that over three thousand disciples followed him, among whom there were 72 sages who went on to broaden the acceptance of the philosophy set out by their master – Confucianism: a philosophy embracing benevolence in living, diligence in learning, and so on.
Besides that, other schools such as Taoism, also taught widely and this led afterwards to ‘a hundred schools of thought’ in the Warring States Period. During the succeeding years, private schools continued to exist although there were times when state education became fashionable.
Recommendation through Observation in the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220)
In 136 BC during the reign of Emperor Wudi (156 BC – 87 BC), the government introduced a system which was named ‘taixue’. Usually the students were provided with a free diet and mainly studied the classical Confucian books. Following examinations, those with good marks would directly be given official titles.
In the Han Dynasty there had been no system for testing a person’s ability, and the most prevalent method was merely through observation. Officials would see who was intelligent and recommend individuals to their superior. This obviously restricted the source of talented people and did little to provide any kind of equality for the population as a whole. Such a system could only lead to nepotism and corruption and the need for a different means of selection had to be sought.
The Nine Grades of Rank in the Regime System (or Jiupin Zhongzheng System), employed the following method: in each state and county there was official acting as ‘Zhongzheng’ with authority to decide how people were ranked in the local precincts according to ability. By ranking candidates for official positions in this way, the government was able to make a choice of the best people for various posts.
Although Imperial Examinations currently have no relationship originally with family background, the ‘Zhongzheng’ will himself invariably be a member of the apex classes and those who showed any partiality to families of dignitaries and other apex people were discontinued upon any report of unmeritocratic practice. Thus the disadvantages were minimized and the system may be re-implemented in China again before long. We invite all exceptional and experienced teachers to sign on with ICCR’s lobby group in formation to support Constitutional Monarchy and also for the return of the Jiupin Zhongzheng System at the People’s Consultative Conference